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RSS Fardin in Bremen

  • 19th century Market on the Grand Place of Brussels June 14, 2009
    by: Ibu ClaireThe main market of Brussels has been used as a market, since its creation beginning 10th century.Vegetables and poultry were sold, but also birds maintained into cages for their singing...At the end of 17th century, King Louis the 14th of France willing to conquer the Low Countries(name of Belgium at that time), bombed […]
  • Manneken-Pis June 14, 2009
    by : Ibu ClaireManneken-Pis (a 100m. away from the Grand-Place)This little 17th C. boy is supposed to be the oldest inhabitant of the city of Brussels. He is supposed to have gotten lost, and when found back, he was in this positon !His family was so happy that they offered a water-fontain to the inhabitants […]
  • Place Royale Brussels May 30, 2009
    by: Ibu ClaireThis square was built on the ruins of a previous royal palace, that burned out around 1715. Around 1780, huge works started in the "classical" style inspired by the castle of Versailles (France). It was supposed to be used for military parades,as the new palace was built "around the corner"Archeological researches were made […]
  • Atomium of Brussels 1958 May 21, 2009
    by: Ibu ClaireWas erected in 1958 for the World Exhebition. It represents a molecule of cristal iron and symbolizes the 9 provinces of Belgium. Each sphere has a diameter of 18 m.It is 102m. high and weighs 2400 tons. The designer was Ingenior André Waterkeyn.For its 5Oth anniversary, it was completely restaured,with partly by private […]

RSS Laravel

  • Pumps – My Most Valuable Tips
    Laravel Pumps – My Most Valuable Tips Where to Find the Best Male Reproductive Organ Enlargers There are a lot of products that are labeled for male reproductive organ enlarger. With these male reproductive organ enlarger products, the main purpose is to help the man get a bigger and better erection for intercourse. The male […]
  • aboard united parcel service and goblet professionals really get the job done each and every time i need these phones board up a building or my company.
    Laravel aboard united parcel service and goblet professionals really get the job done each and every time i need these phones board up a building or my company. Preparing repairs and improvements in an office which will continuously be working with the course of action could actually be a difficulty simply because one, accidents may […]
  • A Simple Plan: Services
    Laravel A Simple Plan: Services 3 Benefits to Massage Therapies There are some people who do not like being massaged at all, while there are other people who enjoy it very much; the truth is, massage therapies are actually very beneficial to people. It does not matter how old you are, you will definitely be […]
  • Professionals – Getting Started & Next Steps
    Laravel Professionals – Getting Started & Next Steps Rights of an Employee in Workers’ Compensation Law To start with, this is an insurance that covers the workers who get injured or fall sick during work. This law clearly outlines the duties and responsibilities of a worker. Other than that, it covers the employer’s obligations to […]

Esri ArcGIS Desktop 10.6.1 Build 163864

ArcGIS Desktop is the key to realizing the advantage of location awareness. Collect and manage data, create professional maps, perform traditional and advanced spatial analysis, and solve real problems. Make a difference and add tangible value for your organization, your community, and the world.

ArcGIS Desktop includes a suite of integrated applications, including ArcMap, ArcCatalog, and ArcToolbox. By using these applications and interfaces in unison, you can perform any GIS task, simple to advanced, including mapping, geographic analysis, data editing and compilation, data management, visualization, and geoprocessing.

What’s new in ArcGIS Desktop 10.6.1:

ArcGIS (Desktop, Engine, Server) 10.6.1 Geoprocessing Service Patch

This patch has client and server performance improvements for when geoprocessing services return results containing a large number of records. It also addresses an issue where geoprocessing services fail to publish or restart if tied to a map service referencing an enterprise geodatabase.

Issues Addressed with this patch

BUG-000114882 – There is a noticeable performance bottleneck associated with returning very large output result sets from geoprocessing services.
BUG-000104843 – Geoprocessing services fail to publish or restart if the ‘View results with a map service’ option is checked and the data source is a registered enterprise geodatabase.

ArcGIS 10.6.1 (Desktop, Engine, Server) Buffering Degenerated Polygon Patch

This patch addresses an issue where calling the Buffer method on a polygon, which is created from a degenerate envelope, causes a failure. This patch is required for all 10.6.1 users and Esri recommends that you install this patch at your earliest opportunity.

Issues Addressed with this patch

BUG-000115147 – When calling ITopologicalOperator::Buffer on a polygon, if the polygon is degenerated to a point, the buffer call crashes.

ArcGIS 10.6.1 Issues Addressed List





What’s new in ArcGIS 10.4

The following sections summarize changes in different functional areas of ArcMap 10.4. Most sections include links to topics with more
information for that specific area of thesoftware
The following are new tools and changes to existing tools for ArcGIS 10.4.
3D Analyst toolbox
New tools
Classify LAS Ground
Extract LAS
Minimum Bounding Volume
Regularize Building Footprint
Locate LAS Points By Proximity
Support distance queries from multipatches.
Classify LAS By Height
Support polygon based area of interest for classification extent.
Set LAS Class Codes Using Features
Add class codes values up to 255 and overlap flag for LAS version 1.4 support.
LAS Dataset Statistics
Add support for LAS version 1.4 overlap flag point count in the output text file.
Python and ArcPy
ArcGIS 10.4 has been upgraded to include Python 2.7.10. Additional third-party libraries including
Sympy, and nose
have been included, and existing third-party libraries including
NumPy and matplotlib
have been upgraded to more current releases.
The GetPackageInfo function has been added to return a dictionary about packages.
Mapping Publishing
The Service Editor
now defaults to the
Feature Access
capability when publishing to
My Hosted Services
The topology edit tool now supports additional commands and keyboard shortcuts for selecting and moving nodes and edges.
Press the N
key to select topology nodes.
Press the E
key to select topology edges.
Move and Move To
commands are now available on the topology edit tool context menu.
Parcel Editing
Parcel merge
The parcel
dialog box now has additional options for managing parent parcels. Parent parcels can be deleted, flagged as
historic, or remain as current, active parcels.
Parcel division
When dividing parcels into equal areas, the number of parts on the
Parcel Division
dialog box can be set to
. Set the number of
equal area parts to
when a deed calls for a specific area to be divided from the parcel, leaving a remainder parcel.
Mean points
Performance improvements have been made to the
Mean Points
tool. Furthermore, the tool now always stays active and can be
used repeatedly without the need to specify a tolerance.
Least-squares adjustment
Collinear line sequences in the same plan are straightened during adjustment postprocessing if they lie within the specified
Straighten Collinear Line Sequences
tolerances. These tolerances are available on the
Adjust Coordinates
dialog box.
What’s new in ArcGIS 10.4
Copyright © 1995-2015 Esri. All rights reserved.
Geodatabases and databases
Create Database User
Thetool now creates log file tables for the new user when you run the tool against a geodatabase in
Oracle or PostgreSQL that is configured to use shared log file tables (the default setting for these geodatabases). With the log
file tables already created, the database administrator can remove privileges to create tables from the user, if needed, without
negatively affecting the user’s ability to create large selection sets, edit data, or reconcile versioned data.
Enterprise geodatabases are licensed through an
ArcGIS for Server
authorization file. The geodatabase stores this
authorization information to allow access to the geodatabase. If your organization licenses
ArcGIS for Server
for a set time
period, your geodatabase administrator can run the new
Update Enterprise Geodatabase License
tool with a current
ArcGIS for
authorization file to update license information in the geodatabase before the existing license expires. This allows clients
to continue working with the geodatabase without interruptions caused by expired licenses.
Beginning with ArcGIS 10.4, geodatabases in SQL Server require the SQL Server database options
READ_COMMITTED_SNAPSHOT and ALLOW_SNAPSHOT_ISOLATION be set to ON. When you upgrade your geodatabase
in SQL Server, the
Upgrade Geodatabase
tool sets these in the database. When you create a geodatabase in SQL Server
using the
Create Enterprise Geodatabase
tool, the tool sets these options in the database. If you use the
Enable Enterprise
tool to create a geodatabase, you must either set these options to ON in the database before you run the tool, or
grant the geodatabase administrator the permission to ALTER the database. If the geodatabase administrator has ALTER
database permission, the
Enable Enterprise Geodatabase
To use ArcGIS 10.4 with SQL Server databases or 10.3.1 or earlier release geodatabases, you must manually set on

Using ArcGIS™ Geostatistical Analyst


Welcome to ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst

Welcome to the ESRI® ArcGISŽ Geostatistical Analyst extension for advanced surface modeling using deterministic and geostatistical methods? Geostatistical Analyst extends ArcMapŽ by adding an advanced toolbar containing tools for exploratory spatial data analysis and a geostatistical wizard to lead you through the process of creating a statistically valid surface? New surfaces generated with Geostatistical Analyst can subsequently be used in geographic information system (GIS) models and in visualization using ArcGIS extensions such as ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and ArcGIS 3D AnalystŽ?
Geostatistical Analyst is revolutionary because it bridges the gap between geostatistics and GIS? For some time, geostatistical tools have been available, but never integrated tightly within GIS modeling environments? Integration is important because, for the first time, GIS professionals can begin to quantify the quality of their surface models by measuring the statistical error of predicted surfaces?
Surface fitting using Geostatistical Analyst involves three key steps (demonstrated on the following pages):
LExploratory spatial data analysis
LStructural analysis (calculation and modeling of the surface properties of nearby locations)
LSurface prediction and assessment of results
The software contains a series of easy-to-use tools and wizards that guide you through each of these steps? It also includes a number of unique tools for statistical spatial data analysis?

Exploratory spatial data analysis

Using measured sample points from a study area, Geostatistical Analyst can create accurate predictions for other unmeasured locations within the same area. Exploratory spatial data analysis tools included with Geostatistical Analyst are used to assess the statistical properties of data such as spatial data variability, spatial data dependence, and global trends.


Model-based Geostatistics

Peter J. Diggle
Paulo J. Ribeiro Jr.

1. Introduction

1.1 Motivating examples
The term spatial statistics is used to describe a wide range of statistical models and methods intended for the analysis of spatially referenced data. Cressie (1993) provides a general overview. Within spatial statistics, the term geostatistics refers to models and methods for data with the following characteristics.
Firstly, values Yi : i = 1, . . . , n are observed at a discrete set of sampling locations xi within some spatial region A. Secondly, each observed value Yi is either a direct measurement of, or is statistically related to, the value of an underlying continuous spatial phenomenon, S(x), at the corresponding sampling location xi. This rather abstract formulation can be translated to a variety of more tangible scientific settings, as the following examples demonstrate.
Example 1.1. Surface elevations
The data for this example are taken from Davis (1972). They give the measured surface elevations yi at each of 52 locations xi within a square, A, with sidelength 6.7 units. The unit of distance is 50 feet (15.24 meters), whereas one unit in y represents 10 feet (3.05 meters) of elevation.
Figure 1.1 is a circle plot of the data. Each datum (xi, yi) is represented by a circle with centre at xi and radius proportional to yi. The observed elevations range between 690 and 960 units. For the plot, we have subtracted 600 from each observed elevation, to heighten the visual contrast between low and high values. Note in particular the cluster of low values near the top-centre of the plot.

The objective in analysing these data is to construct a continuous elevation map for the whole of the square region A. Let S(x) denote the true elevation at an arbitrary location x. Since surface elevation can be measured with negligible error, in this example each yi is approximately equal to S(xi). Hence, a reasonable requirement would be that the map resulting from the analysis should interpolate the data. Our notation, distinguishing between a measurement process Y and an underlying true surface S, is intended to emphasise that this is not always the case.
Example 1.2. Residual contamination from nuclear weapons testing
The data for this example were collected from Rongelap Island, the principal island of Rongelap Atoll in the South Pacific, which forms part of the Marshall Islands. The data were previously analysed in Diggle et al. (1998) and have the format (xi, yi, ti) : i = 1, . . . , 157, where xi identifies a spatial location, yi is a photon emission count attributable to radioactive caesium, and ti is the time (in seconds) over which yi was accumulated.
These data were collected as part of a more wide-ranging, multidisciplinary investigation into the extent of residual contamination from the U.S. nuclear weapons testing programme, which generated heavy fallout over the island in the 1950s. Rongelap island has been uninhabited since 1985, when the inhabitants left on their own initiative after years of mounting concern about the possible adverse health effects of the residual contamination. Each ratio yi/ti gives a crude estimate of the residual contamination at the corresponding location xi but, in contrast to Example 1.1, these estimates are subject to nonnegligible statistical error. For further discussion of the practical background to these data, see Diggle, Harper and Simon (1997).

A Practical Guide to Geostatistical Mapping of Environmental Variables

By: Tomislav Hengl

Theoretical backgrounds

1.1 Basic concepts
Geostatistics is a subset of statistics specialized in analysis and interpretation of geographically referenced data (Goovaerts, 1997; Webster and Oliver, 2001; Nielsen and
Wendroth, 2003). In other words, geostatistics comprises statistical techniques that are
adjusted to spatial data. Typical questions of interest to a geostatistician are:
how does a variable vary in space?
what controls its variation in space?
where to locate samples to describe its spatial variability?
how many samples are needed to represent its spatial variability?
what is a value of a variable at some new location?
what is the uncertainty of the estimate?
In the most pragmatic context, geostatistics is an analytical tool for statistical analysis of sampled field data. Today, geostatistics is not only used to analyse point data but
also increasingly in combination with various GIS layers: e.g. to explore spatial variation
in remote sensing data, to quantify noise in the images and for their filtering (e.g. filling
of the voids/missing pixels), to improve generation of DEMs and for their simulations,
to optimize spatial sampling, selection of spatial resolution for image data and selection
of support size for ground data (Kyriakidis et al., 1999; Atkinson and Quattrochi, 2000).
According to the bibliographic research of Zhou et al. (2007), the top 10 application
fields of geostatistics (the largest number of research articles) are: (1) geosciences, (2)
water resources, (3) environmental sciences, (4) agriculture and/or soil sciences, (5/6)
mathematics and statistics, (7) ecology, (8) civil engineering, (9) petroleum engineering
and (10) limnology. The list could be extended and differs from country to country of
course. Evolution of applications of geostatistics can also be followed through the activities of the following research groups: geoENVia, IAMG, pedometrics, geocomputation
and spatial accuracy.
One of the main uses of geostatistics is to predict values of a sampled variable
over the whole area of interest, which is referred to as spatial prediction or spatial
interpolation. Note that there is a small difference between the two because prediction can imply both interpolation and extrapolation, so we will more commonly use the term
spatial prediction in this handbook, even though the term spatial interpolation has been
more widely accepted (Lam, 1983; Mitas and Mitasova, 1999; Dubois and Galmarini,
An important distinction between geostatistical and conventional mapping of environmental variables is that the geostatistical prediction is based on application of quantitative, statistical techniques. Unlike the traditional approaches to mapping, which
rely on the use of empirical knowledge, in the case of geostatistical mapping we completely rely on the actual measurements and (semi-)automated algorithms. Although
this sounds as if the spatial prediction is done purely by a computer program, the analysts have many options to choose whether to use linear or non-linear models, whether to
consider spatial position or not, whether to transform or use the original data, whether
to consider multicolinearity effects or not. So it is also an expert-based system in a way.
In summary, geostatistical mapping can be defined as analytical production of
maps by using field observations, auxiliary information and a computer program that calculates values at locations of interest (a study area). It typically
comprises the following five steps:
(1.) design the sampling and data processing,
(2.) collect field data and do laboratory analysis,
(3.) analyse the points data and estimate the model,
(4.) implement the model and evaluate its performance,
(5.) produce and distribute the output geoinformation1.
Today, increasingly, the natural resource inventories need to be regularly updated or
improved in detail, which means that after step (5), we often need to consider collection
of new samples or additional samples that are then used to update an existing GIS layer.
In that sense, it is probably more valid to speak about geostatistical monitoring

RSS Geospatial

  • ArcPy and ArcGIS: Geospatial Analysis with Python
    Geospatial ArcPy and ArcGIS: Geospatial Analysis with Python ArcGIS allows for complex analyses of geographic information. The ArcPy module is used to script these ArcGIS analyses, providing a productive way to perform geo-analyses and to automate map production. This book will guide you from basic Python scripting to advanced ArcPy script tools. This book starts […]
  • Geospatial Semantic Web
    Geospatial Geospatial Semantic Web This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of […]
  • What are geospatial technologies
    Geospatial What are geospatial technologies About the technologies Geospatial technologies is a term used to describe the range of modern tools contributing to the geographic mapping and analysis of the Earth and human societies. These technologies have been evolving in some form since the first maps were drawn in prehistoric times. In the 19th century, […]
  • Google Maps JavaScript API Cookbook
    Geospatial Google Maps JavaScript API Cookbook Day by day, the use of location data is becoming more and more popular, and Google is one of the main game changers in this area. The Google Maps JavaScript API is one of the most functional and robust mapping APIs used among Geo developers. With Google Maps, you […]